Exercise 10

Locating Present and Past Participle Phrases

Directions:

  1. Locate all of the participle phrases in the following sentences.

  2. A true participle phrase will not be part of a complete verb.

  3. However, in this exercise, locate each participle you find even if it is part of a complete verb.

  4. Then, type each participle pharase in order in the space provided.

  5. Be sure to check your answers when you have finished this exercise.

A Japanese woman stacking sugarcane in a field
Photo: The Bishop Museum

Example:

After 1900, when Hawaii was designated as a U.S. Territory, migrants from China, Japan, Korea, and the Philippines came to the Islands by choice borrowing passage money from family members or using a credit-ticket system that gave them a loan to be paid back with interest from wages earned in the new land.
Present and Past Participle Phrases:

Present and Past Participle Phrases

1. Supply companies, based in Honolulu, received orders for workers from plantation owners on other Islands in the Hawaiian chain.
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2. Their orders, coupled with requests for hoes and horses, indicated a low regard for laborers whose work force would be responsible for having the sugar industry crowned as "King."
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3. Looking at a typical order which resembles a grocery list, you can see that "Japanese laborers, canvas, a Chinaman, and macaroni" were all lumped together indifferently without regarding their order of importance.
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4. Making life on the cane fields deliberately fragmented was one of the plantation managers' chief goals.
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5. The desire to keep wages low meant finding a way to divide-and-rule the work force so that hard-working Chinese laborers were deliberately pitted against native Hawaiians who they were encouraged to call wahines which meant women.
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6. To keep races separated from each other, after Chinese laborers outstripped Hawaiian workers in terms of their numbers, Portuguese and Japanese workers were hired at lower wages than those paid to the Chinese so that if earning more money became an issue, longtime laborers could be fired at once.
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7. Working ten hour hour days with no days off, laborers in the cane fields doing hana-hana or plantation work were woken up each morning at five oclock by the shrill sound coming from a plantation whistle.
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8. One Korean woman tells about the day her mother overslept when her brother, his wife, another sister, and their mother were rousted out of bed by the luna or boss who pushed the door open before ripping covers off of beds while people were not fully dressed.
Present and Past Participle Phrases:

9. Brought to the fields from nearby labor camps by railway cars, the workers lit up the darkness before dawn with glowing cigarette ends while lining up for work and shouldering their hoes in front of the mill at sunrise before setting out for cane fields to work at their daily tasks.
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10. In 1915, 80 percent of the women hired to work in the fields were Japanese laborers whose jobs included hoeing fields and cutting down cane for 55 cents a day whereas their male counterparts earned 78 cents a day for doing the same kind of work.
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11. Working like machines while scrubbing shirts for a nickel apiece, women who worked in the camps doing laundry had raw swollen knuckles that came from using harsh yellow soap.
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12. According to Ronald Takaki, "standing up and stretching the knots out of their twisted bodies and aching backs was a forbidden pleasure" to laborers hoeing weeds.
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13. Standing in a straight line with no talking for four hours straight, the workers were told to hoe every weed they saw using one chop for a small weed and two chops for large ones.
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14. Doing hole hole work meant stripping away dead leaves from stalks of sugarcane.
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15. Because each leaf had saw-type edges with sharp needle-like points, field workers had their hands badly cut by cane blades in spite of trying to protect their bodies by wearing heavy work clothes.
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16. Finding Asian names hard to remember and difficult to pronounce, the lunas or bosses forced workers to wear tags with numbers instead of names on chains that hung around their necks.
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17. Robbing the wearer of a personal identity, the bango tag was a small brass disk with a set of identification numbers stamped onto it.
Present and Past Participle Phrases:

18. Without ever hearing their names, the workers suffered the indignity of being called 7209 or 6508 by lunas who, in the words of one laborer, treated them "no better than cows or horses."
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19. Cutting ripe sugarcane meant backbreaking work and swinging long knives called machetes which blistered the hands that wielded them.
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20. One worker described his experience in a poem that read, "Becoming weary, I sit for awhile to rest in the cane field and whistle to call the breezes."
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21. Wearing handkerchiefs tied around their heads to shield their faces from clouds of iron-red dust that rose in the hot humid air as cane stalks were cut close to the ground, the workers were forced to clear cane forests where the stalks were more than twice as tall as they were.
Present and Past Participle Phrases:

22. Before processing the raw sugar, there was a need for collecting the cane stalks, tying them in bundles, and loading them onto railway cars, pulled by a train engine, that took them to the sugar mill.
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23. Dripping with sweat from unbearable heat, laborers worked in the mill where presses, furnaces, and boilers were used to crush the cane and heat the extracted juices to the boiling point.
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24. The workers were surrounded by deafening sounds made by machines that clanked and whirred while the sugarcane juices were refined for the production of molasses or crystals of raw sugar.
Present and Past Participle Phrases:

25. Piercing the air at 4:30 sharp, the shrill blast from the plantation whistle meant pau hana, the end of the work day, for exhausted laborers returning to the camps for a meager supper and a well-earned rest before the next day's whistle woke them again at daybreak.
Present and Past Participle Phrases: