Exercise 9

Locating Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases

Directions:

  1. Locate all of the infinitives or infinitive phrases in each of the following sentences.

  2. A true infinitive phrase will not be part of a complete verb.

  3. However, in this exercise, locate each infinitive you find even if it is part of a complete verb.

  4. Then, type each inifinitive or inifinitive pharase in order in the space provided.

  5. Be sure to check your answers when you have finished this exercise.

"Talking story" in a Maui cane field
Photo: The Bishop Museum

Example:

In the 1890s, one way for laborers in the cane fields to cross ethnic lines was to develop a hybrid language of their own.
Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases:

Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases

1. "Talking story" with their fellow workers seated on the ground during lunch breaks was a good way to break the ice.
Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases:

2. People from the Philippines, Japan, Korea, and China did not need a big vocabulary to express their pleasure in sampling foods from each other's culture.
Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases:

3. It was only necessary to say ono or delicious in Hawaiian to give thanks for some Korean kimchi which was a kind of pickled cabbage seasoned with garlic and hot red pepper that was made to be eaten with a portion of plain steamed rice.
Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases:

4. The desire to form ties with one another created a need to share memories about their native homelands and to talk about the experiences they were having in their newly adopted country.
Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases:

5. However, to forget one's native language would have been inexcusable.
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6. Because of their desire to have their children learn how to read in their mother tongue, Japanese and Korean parents often placed them in language schools for a few hours each day after they finished their regular lessons at a public school.
Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases:

7. However, the desire to establish a common language between workers of different nationalities was also very strong.
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8. To begin with, plantation managers, whose language was English, had a need to talk to their workers.
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9. Nevertheless, to be taught spoken English did not mean to learn "the English of Shakespeare but the terms used in everyday plantation life," said one planter.
Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases:

10. To avoid misunderstandings, plantation bosses and employees developed a type of "pidgin English" that allowed them to speak with each other in a comfortable manner.
Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases:

11. With bits and pieces of words taken from the English, Hawaiian, Japanese, Portuguese, and Chinese languages, the foreman on a cane field was able to talk to all of his workers at once.
Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases:

12. He no longer had a need to translate each order he gave into many different languages.
Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases:

13. Workers in the cane fields were also able to reap the benefits of having a widely understood language to use when talking to their overseer and when speaking with each other.
Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases:

14. After a short period of time, some of the workers in the fields began to think "pidgin" and English were one and the same.
Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases:

15. A story is told about a new white haole plantation manager who came to Hawaii without knowing how to speak "pidgin."
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16. While standing in the middle of the cane fields, he began to talk to the Chinese workers in "pure English."
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17. First, he told them to cut the sugarcane stalks close to the ground.
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18. Then, he asked them to cut the tops off of the stalks and to throw them between the furrows of earth to fertilize the fields.
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19. Noticing confused expressions on the faces of the workers, a bystander asked permission to give those same orders in "pidgin."
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20. After being helped to understand the boss's orders, the field workers nodded their heads and said, "Huy! wasamalla dis Haole - he no can taok haole!"
Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases:

21. Because "pidgin English" was developed on the plantations, the new language came to be associated with Hawaii rather than Japan, Korea, China, or the Philippines.
Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases:

22. Like many other immigrant women, one Korean mother began to notice the fact that her children were being raised as Hawaiians who spoke "Hawaiian English" rather than their native language.
Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases:

23. The ability to speak "pidgin" made it possible to develop a Hawaiian identity that was shared by all of the immigrant members of the rainbow population.
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24. According to the historian, Ronald Takaki, it was one way to add to the mosaic picture that was being painted with a broad brush in the world of Hawaiian plantations.
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25. For on the Hawaiian Islands, words, instead of broken bits of colored stone or glass, were used to create patterns that allowed ethnic groups from different races to retain their identities while they began to form "a multicultural mosaic."
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