Logical Connectives

Logical Connectives are transitional words and phrases.

  • They mentally link one idea to another.

  • They do not serve a grammatical function.

  • They do not link main clauses of equal value as coordinate connectives do.

  • They do not de-emphasize a less dominant idea as subordinate connectives do.

Logical Connectives

  • Here is a partial list of logical connectives.

  • They will help you to identify transitional words and phrases.

accordinglyfurthermorethenfinally
afterwardshowevertherefore for example
alsomoreoverthusin conclusion
besidesnevertheless firstin other words
consequently otherwisesecondof course
finallystillthirdon the other hand

If a logical connective comes at the beginning of a clause, it is followed by a comma (pause).

Examples:

Of course, kapa cloth had many uses.

  • An introductory phrase is similar to a logical connective.

  • It should be followed by a comma.

Example:

As an Illustration, Hawaiian chiefs gave each other yardage as a gift while mothers included bundles of kapa in their children's dowries.

If a logical connective comes at the end of a clause, it is sometimes preceded by a comma (pause).

  • However, the comma is optional.

Examples:

Kapa was given to a first-born child on his or her first birthday, also.

  • Here, a comma is used before the logical connective.

Kapa moe, which was called sleeping kapa, provided another popular use for the fabric moreover.

  • Here, a comma is not used before the logical connective.

  • This pattern is the one most frequently used.

If a logical connective comes between two main clauses, the clauses must be joined with a period, a semicolon, or a comma plus a coordinate connective to prevent a run-on sentence.

Example:

Kapa bed sheets were 7 feet wide and 8 or 9 feet long; nevertheless, during the nineteenth century, five sheets were sewn together along one long edge to form bed covers for double or king size beds.

  • The semicolon (;) after long prevents a run-on sentence.

  • When a semicolon joins two main clauses, the word that follows is not capitalized.

  • The comma (,) after nevertheless is used because a logical connective precedes another clause.

If two main clauses are joined with two coordinate connectives, commas precede and follow the connecting words.

Example:

Having several sheets stitched along one edge gave the sleeper a book-like coverlet, and yet, someone could lie under one or more sheets simply by throwing unwanted layers over the side of the bed like pages of a book if the night was unbearably warm.

  • A comma (,) comes before and which joins main clause one to main clause two.

  • A comma (,) follows yet which functions as though it were a logical connective.

Do not confuse the subordinate connective than with the logical connective then.

Examples:

If the night grew colder than it was at bedtime, it was possible to simply roll oneself up in extra layers of bedding that were there to provide added warmth.

  • This sentence is Complex.

  • The subordinate connective than signals the beginning of a dependent clause.

  • Than introduces a second element in a comparison.

The undersheets of the kapa moe were left an off-white whereas the kilohana or top sheet was usually dyed; then, it was decorated with repeat patterns of tiny geometrical motifs or bold linear designs by snapping cords dipped in dye onto the surface of the finished fabric.

  • This sentence is Compound-Complex.

  • The logical connective then comes between two main clauses.

  • The semicolon (;) before then prevents a run-on sentence.

  • The comma (,) following then precedes the next clause with a pause.

  • Then means at that time.

Do not confuse the subordinate connective how with the logical connective however.

Examples:

Sometimes, flowers, leaves, or wood sap mixed with coconut oil were heated by means of hot stones; a Hawaiian, who described how the fragrant mixture was added to the dye bath to perfume the kapa cloth, said, "It becomes a fragrant thing with a soft pleasant odor like a cool morning."

  • This sentence is Complex.

  • The subordinate connective how signals the beginning of a dependent clause.

  • How means in what manner and describes a process.

Kapa was also used to make the malo or loincloth for men, and a wrap-around skirt, called a pa'u, for women; however, an item of clothing worn by both sexes was called a kihei which was a square or rectangular shawl that was fastened around the shoulders by tying two ends in a knot.

  • This sentence is Compound-Complex.

  • The logical connective however comes between two main clauses.

  • The semicolon (;) before however prevents a run-on sentence.

  • The comma (,) following however precedes the next clause with a pause.

  • However indicates a contrast.